Sequence in raw or FASTA format:
CHRNA2 cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 2 (neuronal) [Homo sapiens (human)]
|Entrez Gene ID||1135|
|Full Name||cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 2 (neuronal)|
|General protein information||
|Organism||Homo sapiens (human)|
|Summary||Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels formed by a pentameric arrangement of alpha and beta subunits to create distinct muscle and neuronal receptors. Neuronal receptors are found throughout the peripheral and central nervous system where they are involved in fast synaptic transmission. This gene encodes an alpha subunit that is widely expressed in the brain. The proposed structure for nAChR subunits is a conserved N-terminal extracellular domain followed by three conserved transmembrane domains, a variable cytoplasmic loop, a fourth conserved transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal extracellular region. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy type 4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene have been associated with nicotine dependence. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009].|
Epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, type 4, 610353 (3)
|hsa04080||Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction|
|REACT_15370||Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell|
|REACT_13477||Transmission across Chemical Synapses|
|REACT_15461||Acetylcholine Binding And Downstream Events|
|REACT_22149||Postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors|
|REACT_22303||Highly calcium permeable postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors|
|REACT_22126||Activation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors|
|REACT_22336||Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors|
|REACT_22352||Highly calcium permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors|
|Homo sapiens (human)||CHRNA2||NP_000733.2|
|Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)||CHRNA2||NP_001029107.1|
|Macaca mulatta (Rhesus monkey)||CHRNA2||XP_001109335.1|
|Canis lupus familiaris (dog)||CHRNA2||XP_005635946.1|
|Bos taurus (cattle)||CHRNA2||NP_001179639.1|
|Mus musculus (house mouse)||Chrna2||NP_659052.1|
|Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat)||Chrna2||NP_596911.1|
|Gallus gallus (chicken)||CHRNA2||NP_990146.1|
|Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly)||nAcRalpha-96Ab||NP_733001.1|
|Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis (western clawed frog)||chrna2||XP_002941292.2|
|GO:0034220||ion transmembrane transport||IEA|
|GO:0005892||acetylcholine-gated channel complex||IDA|
|GO:0016021||integral component of membrane||NAS|
|GO:0004889||acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity||IDA|
|GO:0015464||acetylcholine receptor activity||IDA|
What is the normal function of the CHRNA2 gene?
The CHRNA2 gene provides instructions for making one part (subunit) of a larger protein called a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Each nAChR protein is made up of a combination of five subunits, usually two alpha (α) and three beta (β) subunits. Many different combinations are possible, and the characteristics of each nAChR protein depend on which subunits it contains. The CHRNA2 gene is responsible for producing a subunit known as α2. Little is known about the specific function of nAChR proteins made with this subunit.
In the brain, nAChR proteins are widely distributed and play an important role in chemical signaling between nerve cells (neurons). The proteins act as channels, allowing charged atoms (ions) including calcium, sodium, and potassium to cross the cell membrane. These channels open when attached to a brain chemical (neurotransmitter) called acetylcholine. The channels also open in response to nicotine, the addictive substance in tobacco.
Communication between neurons depends on neurotransmitters, which are released from one neuron and taken up by neighboring neurons. The release and uptake of these chemicals are tightly regulated to ensure that signals are passed efficiently and accurately between neurons. Researchers believe that nAChR channels play an important role in controlling the normal release and uptake of neurotransmitters.
A wide range of brain functions depend on nAChR channels, including sleep and arousal, fatigue, anxiety, attention, pain perception, and memory. The channels are also active before birth, which suggests that they are involved in early brain development. At least one drug that targets nAChR channels in the brain has been developed to help people quit smoking; other medications targeting these channels are under study for the treatment of schizophrenia, Alzheimer disease, and pain.
Our customer service representatives are available 24 hours a day, Monday through Friday; please contact us anytime for assistance.