Sequence in raw or FASTA format:
ESR2 estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta) [
Homo sapiens (human)]
Gene Symbol ESR2
Entrez Gene ID
Full Name estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta)
Synonyms ER-BETA, ESR-BETA, ESRB, ESTRB, Erb, NR3A2
General protein information
estrogen receptor beta
estrogen receptor beta
estrogen receptor beta 4
estrogen nuclear receptor beta variant a
estrogen nuclear receptor beta variant b
nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group A member 2
Gene Type protein-coding
Homo sapiens (human)
Chromosome:14 Map Location:14q23.2
Summary This gene encodes a member of the family of estrogen receptors and superfamily of nuclear receptor transcription factors. The gene product contains an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal ligand binding domain and is localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Upon binding to 17beta-estradiol or related ligands, the encoded protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers that interact with specific DNA sequences to activate transcription. Some isoforms dominantly inhibit the activity of other estrogen receptor family members. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].
WP34 Ovarian Infertility Genes
WP170 Nuclear Receptors
WP706 SIDS Susceptibility Pathways
WP2377 Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway
Pathway Interaction Database
ID Name Evidence
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
GO:0001541 ovarian follicle development IEA
GO:0001764 neuron migration IEA
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated TAS
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS
GO:0007420 brain development IEA
GO:0008628 hormone-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway IEA
GO:0010467 gene expression TAS
GO:0030308 negative regulation of cell growth NAS
GO:0030520 intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway TAS
GO:0043401 steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway IEA
GO:0050680 negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IEA
GO:0051091 positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity IDA
GO:0060065 uterus development IEA
GO:0060068 vagina development IEA
GO:0060740 prostate gland epithelium morphogenesis IEA
GO:0060743 epithelial cell maturation involved in prostate gland development IEA
GO:0060766 negative regulation of androgen receptor signaling pathway IEA
GO:1900116 extracellular negative regulation of signal transduction NAS
ID Name Evidence
GO:0001046 core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
GO:0003677 DNA binding TAS
GO:0003700 sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity TAS
GO:0003707 steroid hormone receptor activity TAS
GO:0003713 transcription coactivator activity TAS
GO:0004879 ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity IDA
GO:0004879 ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity NAS
GO:0005496 steroid binding ISS
GO:0005496 steroid binding TAS
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IEA
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI
GO:0030284 estrogen receptor activity TAS
GO:0034056 estrogen response element binding IDA
GO:0048019 receptor antagonist activity NAS
Related articles in PubMed Estrogen receptor β sustains epithelial differentiation by regulating prolyl hydroxylase 2 transcription. Mak P, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2013 Mar 19. PMID 23487784. Estrogen receptor α mediates proliferation of osteoblastic cells stimulated by estrogen and mechanical strain, but their acute down-regulation of the Wnt antagonist Sost is mediated by estrogen receptor β. Galea GL, et al. J Biol Chem, 2013 Mar 29. PMID 23362266. [LOH and genetic polymorphysms of breast cancer]. Utsumi T. Nihon Rinsho, 2012 Sep. PMID 23350368. Akt2 expression is associated with good long-term prognosis in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Fohlin H, et al. Eur J Cancer, 2013 Apr. PMID 23305873. Given breast cancer, is fat better than thin? Impact of the estrogen receptor beta gene polymorphisms. Borgquist S, et al. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2013 Feb. PMID 23274843. See all (808) citations in PubMed See citations in PubMed for homologs of this gene provided by HomoloGene
GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions
What's a GeneRIF?
ERbeta is a prognostic marker of recurrence-free rate in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, potentially through suppressing cadherin switch.
Title: Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is a novel prognostic marker of recurrence survival in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer potentially by inhibiting cadherin switch.
Japanese subjects, especially women, bearing at least one allele of 20 CA repeats in the ESR2 may have a lower risk of femoral fracture than those without it, suggesting this polymorphism plays a role in bone metabolism.
Title: Association between estrogen receptor-β dinucleotide repeat polymorphism and incidence of femoral fracture.
ESR2 polymorphisms seem to divide patients into good and poor survivors based on BMI, stressing the need of taking host factors into consideration in the evaluation of prognostic markers.
Title: Given breast cancer, is fat better than thin? Impact of the estrogen receptor beta gene polymorphisms.
we found that ERbeta1 inhibited proliferation and factors known to be involved in bone metastasis, whereas ERbeta2 increased proliferation and up-regulated factors involved in bone metastasis.
Title: Estrogen receptors β1 and β2 have opposing roles in regulating proliferation and bone metastasis genes in the prostate cancer cell line PC3.
This study presents that ERbeta methylation is also a frequent event in breast cancer and maybe also one of the mechanisms of ERbeta expression silence in a subset of Chinese sporadic breast cancers
Title: Clinical implications of ERβ methylation on sporadic breast cancers in Chinese women.
Estrogen receptor alpha mediates proliferation of osteoblastic cells stimulated by estrogen and mechanical strain, but their acute down-regulation of the Wnt antagonist Sost is mediated by estrogen receptor beta
Title: Estrogen receptor α mediates proliferation of osteoblastic cells stimulated by estrogen and mechanical strain, but their acute down-regulation of the Wnt antagonist Sost is mediated by estrogen receptor β.
in adipose tissue, estrogen receptor beta-mediated estrogen signaling can up-regulate 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I and that this may be of particular importance in postmenopausal women
Title: Association of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I expression and activity with estrogen receptor β in adipose tissue from postmenopausal women.
These findings suggest that CCND1 expression is possibly regulated by estrogens via ERbeta and that this signaling pathway may influence prostate cancer development.
Title: Cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression is involved in estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in human prostate cancer.
Data indicate that the prognostic value of Akt2 increases with higher oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, motivating further mechanistic studies on the role of Akt2 in ER+ breast cancer.
Title: Akt2 expression is associated with good long-term prognosis in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer.
Data indicate that estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, progesterone receptor and androgen receptor may be partly involved in gastric carcinogenesis but their clinicopathological and prognostic significance appears to be limited.
Title: Expression profile and prognostic role of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer.
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