Sequence in raw or FASTA format:
PF4 platelet factor 4 [
Homo sapiens (human)]
Gene Symbol PF4
Entrez Gene ID
Full Name platelet factor 4
Synonyms CXCL4, PF-4, SCYB4
General protein information
platelet factor 4
platelet factor 4
C-X-C motif chemokine 4
chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4
Gene Type protein-coding
Homo sapiens (human)
Chromosome:4 Map Location:4q12-q21
Summary This gene encodes a member of the CXC chemokine family. This chemokine is released from the alpha granules of activated platelets in the form of a homotetramer which has high affinity for heparin and is involved in platelet aggregation. This protein is chemotactic for numerous other cell type and also functions as an inhibitor of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis and T-cell function. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012].
hsa04060 Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
hsa04062 Chemokine signaling pathway
Pathway Interaction Database
ID Name Evidence
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS
GO:0006955 immune response IEA
GO:0007596 blood coagulation TAS
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression IDA
GO:0010744 positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IDA
GO:0016525 negative regulation of angiogenesis IDA
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IDA
GO:0030168 platelet activation IDA
GO:0030168 platelet activation TAS
GO:0030595 leukocyte chemotaxis IDA
GO:0030816 positive regulation of cAMP metabolic process IDA
GO:0032760 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IDA
GO:0042127 regulation of cell proliferation IDA
GO:0043950 positive regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling IDA
GO:0045347 negative regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process IDA
GO:0045651 positive regulation of macrophage differentiation IDA
GO:0045653 negative regulation of megakaryocyte differentiation IDA
GO:0045918 negative regulation of cytolysis IDA
GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
GO:2001240 negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand IDA
Related articles in PubMed Autocrine CCL2, CXCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL10 signal in retinal endothelial cells and are enhanced in diabetic retinopathy. Nawaz MI, et al. Exp Eye Res, 2013 Apr. PMID 23352833. Platelet factor 4 and Duffy antigen required for platelet killing of Plasmodium falciparum. McMorran BJ, et al. Science, 2012 Dec 7. PMID 23224555. Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease. Jostins L, et al. Nature, 2012 Nov 1. PMID 23128233. Novel Loci for metabolic networks and multi-tissue expression studies reveal genes for atherosclerosis. Inouye M, et al. PLoS Genet, 2012. PMID 22916037. Genetic variants in platelet factor 4 modulate inflammatory and platelet activation biomarkers. Bhatnagar P, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Genet, 2012 Aug 1. PMID 22763266. See all (132) citations in PubMed See citations in PubMed for homologs of this gene provided by HomoloGene
GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions
What's a GeneRIF?
This study aimed at examining the presence and role of chemokines (angiogenic CCL2/MCP-1 and angiostatic CXCL4/PF-4, CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Title: Autocrine CCL2, CXCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL10 signal in retinal endothelial cells and are enhanced in diabetic retinopathy.
This study highlights the importance of PF4 variants in the regulation of platelet activation (PF4) and systemic inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) serum biomarkers.
Title: Genetic variants in platelet factor 4 modulate inflammatory and platelet activation biomarkers.
platelet molecule platelet factor 4 (PF4 or CXCL4) and the erythrocyte Duffy-antigen receptor (Fy) are necessary for platelet-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum parasites.
Title: Platelet factor 4 and Duffy antigen required for platelet killing of Plasmodium falciparum.
The present review describes the role of CXCL4-PF4 in cancer, the immunobiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of HIT, and the specific problems faced in cancer patients.
Title: CXCL4-platelet factor 4, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and cancer.
Differences in the properties of anti-PF4 antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia not revealed by ELISA that correlate with oligomerization of PF4 and sustained high-avidity interactions that may simulate transient antibody-antigen interactions in vivo.
Title: Dynamic antibody-binding properties in the pathogenesis of HIT.
Examined the prognostic values of SARS-associated proteome, and deciphered the identities of those with prognostic values.The associations of decreased serum PF4 and increased serum beta-TG levels with poor prognosis were confirmed by Western blot.
Title: Proteomic analysis reveals platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin as prognostic markers in severe acute respiratory syndrome.
blockade of HIV-1 infection occurs at the level of virus attachment and entry via a unique mechanism that involves direct interaction of CXCL4 with the major viral envelope glycoprotein, gp120
Title: Identification of the platelet-derived chemokine CXCL4/PF-4 as a broad-spectrum HIV-1 inhibitor.
VEGF, PF4 and PDGF are elevated in platelets of colorectal cancer patients
Title: VEGF, PF4 and PDGF are elevated in platelets of colorectal cancer patients.
ODSH can be used concurrently with UFH to disrupt PF4/H charge interactions
Title: Disruption of PF4/H multimolecular complex formation with a minimally anticoagulant heparin (ODSH).
In conclusion, measurements of HIT-IgG -specific antibodies can facilitate an appropriate estimation in hemodialysis patients of whether the clinical features of an acute systemic reaction are caused by HIT or dialytic complications.
Title: Clinical evaluation of acute systemic reaction and detection of IgG antibodies against PF4/heparin complexes in hemodialysis patients.
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