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INS cDNA ORF clone, Homo sapiens (human)

Gene Symbol INS
Entrez Gene ID 3630
Full Name insulin
Synonyms IDDM, IDDM1, IDDM2, ILPR, IRDN, MODY10
General protein information
Preferred Names
insulin
Names
insulin
proinsulin
preproinsulin
Gene Type protein-coding
Organism Homo sapiens (human)
Genome

11

11p15.5

Summary After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]. lac of sum
Disorder MIM:

176730

Disorder Html: Hyperproinsulinemia, familial, with or without diabetes (3);

mRNA and Protein(s)

mRNA Protein Name
NM_001185097 NP_001172026 insulin preproprotein
NM_001185098 NP_001172027 insulin preproprotein
NM_000207 NP_000198 insulin preproprotein
NM_001291897 NP_001278826 insulin preproprotein

KEGG
hsa04150 mTOR signaling pathway
hsa04140 Regulation of autophagy
hsa04810 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
hsa04940 Type I diabetes mellitus
hsa04910 Insulin signaling pathway
hsa04950 Maturity onset diabetes of the young
hsa04930 Type II diabetes mellitus
hsa05215 Prostate cancer
hsa04960 Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption
hsa04114 Oocyte meiosis
hsa04914 Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation
hsa04913 Ovarian steroidogenesis
hsa04911 Insulin secretion
hsa04151 PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
hsa04066 HIF-1 signaling pathway
hsa04068 FoxO signaling pathway
hsa04022 cGMP-PKG signaling pathway
hsa04152 AMPK signaling pathway
hsa04917 Prolactin signaling pathway
hsa04923 Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes
hsa04932 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
hsa04014 Ras signaling pathway
hsa04015 Rap1 signaling pathway
Reactome
R-HSA-422085 Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin
R-HSA-264876 Insulin processing
R-HSA-2980736 Peptide hormone metabolism
R-HSA-1643685 Disease
R-HSA-977225 Amyloid formation
R-HSA-162582 Signal Transduction
R-HSA-74751 Insulin receptor signalling cascade
R-HSA-74752 Signaling by Insulin receptor
R-HSA-77387 Insulin receptor recycling
R-HSA-74713 IRS activation
R-HSA-74749 Signal attenuation
R-HSA-392499 Metabolism of proteins
R-HSA-1430728 Metabolism
R-HSA-163685 Integration of energy metabolism
R-HSA-422356 Regulation of insulin secretion
R-HSA-1266738 Developmental Biology
R-HSA-186712 Regulation of beta-cell development
R-HSA-210745 Regulation of gene expression in beta cells
Pathway Interaction Database
tcptp_pathway Signaling events mediated by TCPTP
hnf3bpathway FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks
arf6_traffickingpathway Arf6 trafficking events
hnf3apathway FOXA1 transcription factor network
atf2_pathway ATF-2 transcription factor network
insulin_glucose_pathway Insulin-mediated glucose transport
insulin_pathway Insulin Pathway
ptp1bpathway Signaling events mediated by PTP1B
WikiPathways
WP615 Senescence and Autophagy
WP15 Selenium Pathway
WP176 Folate Metabolism
WP236 Adipogenesis
WP1982 SREBP signalling
WP2406 Cardiac Progenitor Differentiation
WP2324 AGE/RAGE pathway
WP1533 Vitamin B12 Metabolism


Homo sapiens (human) INS NP_000198.1
Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee) INS NP_001008996.1
Canis lupus familiaris (dog) INS NP_001123565.1
Mus musculus (house mouse) Ins2 NP_032413.1
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) Ins2 NP_062003.1
Gallus gallus (chicken) INS NP_990553.1
Danio rerio (zebrafish) ins NP_571131.1
Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis (western clawed frog) ins NP_001093706.1

Component

ID Name Evidence
GO:0005576 extracellular region EXP
GO:0005576 extracellular region IC
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
GO:0031904 endosome lumen TAS

Function

ID Name Evidence
GO:0005158 insulin receptor binding IDA
GO:0005158 insulin receptor binding IPI
GO:0005159 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding IPI
GO:0005179 hormone activity IC
GO:0005179 hormone activity IMP
GO:0005179 hormone activity NAS
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI

Process

ID Name Evidence
GO:0000165 MAPKKK cascade IDA
GO:0002674 negative regulation of acute inflammatory response IDA
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IEA
GO:0006112 energy reserve metabolic process TAS
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent NAS
GO:0006521 regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process IMP
GO:0006953 acute-phase response IDA
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway IDA
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling IC
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
GO:0008286 insulin receptor signaling pathway TAS
GO:0008543 fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
GO:0014068 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade IDA
GO:0015758 glucose transport IDA
GO:0022898 regulation of transmembrane transporter activity IDA
GO:0030307 positive regulation of cell growth NAS
GO:0030335 positive regulation of cell migration ISS
GO:0031018 endocrine pancreas development TAS
GO:0031954 positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation ISS
GO:0032148 activation of protein kinase B activity IDA
GO:0032270 positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process IMP
GO:0032880 regulation of protein localization IDA
GO:0033861 negative regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity IDA
GO:0042060 wound healing IDA
GO:0042177 negative regulation of protein catabolic process IDA
GO:0042593 glucose homeostasis IMP
GO:0043066 negative regulation of apoptosis NAS
GO:0043410 positive regulation of MAPKKK cascade IDA
GO:0045429 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process NAS
GO:0045597 positive regulation of cell differentiation NAS
GO:0045721 negative regulation of gluconeogenesis NAS
GO:0045725 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process IDA
GO:0045740 positive regulation of DNA replication IDA
GO:0045818 negative regulation of glycogen catabolic process IMP
GO:0045821 positive regulation of glycolysis IDA
GO:0045821 positive regulation of glycolysis IMP
GO:0045840 positive regulation of mitosis IDA
GO:0045861 negative regulation of proteolysis IMP
GO:0045908 negative regulation of vasodilation NAS
GO:0045909 positive regulation of vasodilation NAS
GO:0045922 negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process IMP
GO:0046326 positive regulation of glucose import IDA
GO:0046628 positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway IDA
GO:0046631 alpha-beta T cell activation IDA
GO:0046889 positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process NAS
GO:0050708 regulation of protein secretion IDA
GO:0050709 negative regulation of protein secretion IDA
GO:0050715 positive regulation of cytokine secretion IDA
GO:0050731 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
GO:0050796 regulation of insulin secretion TAS
GO:0050995 negative regulation of lipid catabolic process NAS
GO:0051000 positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity NAS
GO:0051092 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
GO:0051897 positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade IDA
GO:0055089 fatty acid homeostasis IMP
GO:0060266 negative regulation of respiratory burst involved in inflammatory response IDA
GO:0060267 positive regulation of respiratory burst IDA
GO:2000252 negative regulation of feeding behavior IDA

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions What's a GeneRIF?

The following INS gene cDNA ORF clone sequences were retrieved from the NCBI Reference Sequence Database (RefSeq). These sequences represent the protein coding region of the INS cDNA ORF which is encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) sequence. ORF sequences can be delivered in our standard vector, pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or the vector of your choice as an expression/transfection-ready ORF clone. Not the clone you want? Click here to find your clone.

***CloneID RefSeq Accession Definition **Vector *Turnaround time Price Select
OHu22288 NM_001185097 Homo sapiens insulin (INS), transcript variant 2, mRNA. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector 5-7 $69.30
$99.00
OHu22288 NM_001185098 Homo sapiens insulin (INS), transcript variant 3, mRNA. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector 5-7 $69.30
$99.00
OHu22288 NM_000207 Homo sapiens insulin (INS), transcript variant 1, mRNA. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector 5-7 $69.30
$99.00
OHu22288 NM_001291897 Homo sapiens insulin (INS), transcript variant 4, mRNA. pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector 7-9 $69.30
$99.00

*Business Day

** You may select a custom vector to replace pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK after clone is added to cart.

** GenScript guarantees 100% sequence accuracy of all synthetic DNA constructs we deliver, but we do not guarantee protein expression in your experimental system. Protein expression is influenced by many factors that may vary between experiments or laboratories. In addition, please pay attention to the signal peptide, propeptide and transit peptide in target ORF, which may affect the choice of vector (N/C terminal tag vector).

***One clone ID might be correlated to multiple accession numbers, which share the same CDS sequence.


CloneID OHu22288
Clone ID Related Accession (Same CDS sequence) NM_000207 , NM_001185097 , NM_001185098 , NM_001291897
Accession Version NM_001185097.1 Documents for ORF clone product in dufault vector
Sequence Information ORF Nucleotide Sequence (Length: 333bp)
Protein sequence
SNP
Vector pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector User Manual
Clone information Clone Map MSDS
Tag on pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK C terminal DYKDDDDK tags
ORF Insert Method CloneEZ® Seamless cloning technology
Structure linear
Update Date 15-MAR-2015
Organism Homo sapiens (human)
Product insulin preproprotein
Comment REVIEWED REFSEQ: This record has been curated by NCBI staff. The reference sequence was derived from BP322143.1, AY899304.1 and BM510347.1. Summary: After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]. Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. All variants encode the same protein. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: BU783312.1, BQ787808.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: single sample supports all introns SAMEA2151405, SAMEA2153347 [ECO:0000348] ##Evidence-Data-END## COMPLETENESS: complete on the 3' end.

1
61
121
181
241
301
ATGGCCCTGT GGATGCGCCT CCTGCCCCTG CTGGCGCTGC TGGCCCTCTG GGGACCTGAC 
CCAGCCGCAG CCTTTGTGAA CCAACACCTG TGCGGCTCAC ACCTGGTGGA AGCTCTCTAC
CTAGTGTGCG GGGAACGAGG CTTCTTCTAC ACACCCAAGA CCCGCCGGGA GGCAGAGGAC
CTGCAGGTGG GGCAGGTGGA GCTGGGCGGG GGCCCTGGTG CAGGCAGCCT GCAGCCCTTG
GCCCTGGAGG GGTCCCTGCA GAAGCGTGGC ATTGTGGAAC AATGCTGTAC CAGCATCTGC
TCCCTCTACC AGCTGGAGAA CTACTGCAAC TAG

The stop codons will be deleted if pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK vector is selected.

RefSeq NP_001172026.1
CDS86..418
Misc Feature(1)161..415(+)
Misc Feature(2)179..409(+)
Exon (1)1..68
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Exon (2)69..272
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Exon (3)273..491
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Translation
Position Chain Variation Link
14 14 a, g dbSNP:772426967
46 46 -, ttgc dbSNP:3842740
62 62 g, t dbSNP:539346403
63 63 c, t dbSNP:568856178
77 77 c, t dbSNP:5505
78 78 c, t dbSNP:11557611
79 79 c, t dbSNP:11557605
86 86 a, g dbSNP:757124361
88 88 a, g, t dbSNP:397515521
89 89 a, g dbSNP:535989053
91 91 c, t dbSNP:764207450
101 101 c, g, t dbSNP:121908278
102 102 a, g dbSNP:121908259
106 106 c, t dbSNP:759951127
110 110 c, t dbSNP:372122432
112 112 c, t dbSNP:11557610
120 120 c, t dbSNP:777079520
121 121 a, g dbSNP:3842744
122 122 c, t dbSNP:761260304
125 125 c, t dbSNP:774043636
133 133 c, g dbSNP:151134873
137 137 c, g dbSNP:748696269
147 147 c, t dbSNP:369743665
148 148 a, g dbSNP:11564720
150 150 c, t dbSNP:745671341
151 151 c, t dbSNP:375371953
152 152 a, g, t dbSNP:13306444
156 156 a, c, t dbSNP:80356663
157 157 a, c dbSNP:539284976
170 170 c, g dbSNP:121908272
178 178 c, t dbSNP:758540467
179 179 a, c, g dbSNP:80356664
185 185 c, g dbSNP:121918101
189 189 c, t dbSNP:121908273
198 198 c, t dbSNP:11557614
212 212 g, t dbSNP:80356666
214 214 c, t dbSNP:201392940
215 215 a, g dbSNP:765512575
217 217 a, g dbSNP:267602820
222 222 a, g dbSNP:121908260
223 223 a, g dbSNP:759819273
225 225 g, t dbSNP:80356667
226 226 c, t dbSNP:11557609
228 228 c, g, t dbSNP:80356668
232 232 c, g, t dbSNP:148685531
237 237 c, t dbSNP:556809279
238 238 a, c, g dbSNP:773789432
240 240 c, g dbSNP:145038693
242 242 a, g dbSNP:368338862
243 243 a, c dbSNP:202244834
247 247 c, t dbSNP:769540056
248 248 c, t dbSNP:121908261
250 250 c, t dbSNP:745511856
251 251 c, t dbSNP:781016664
258 258 c, t dbSNP:770737691
272 272 g, t dbSNP:746770373
273 273 c, t dbSNP:760240330
279 279 a, t dbSNP:773102009
280 280 a, g dbSNP:771743781
286 286 g, t dbSNP:41301451
287 287 a, c dbSNP:121908279
289 289 c, g dbSNP:774459022
292 292 c, t dbSNP:768647623
293 293 a, g dbSNP:749388720
297 297 g, t dbSNP:780264600
309 309 a, g dbSNP:144093133
312 312 a, g dbSNP:139264769
321 321 c, t dbSNP:781430273
327 327 c, t dbSNP:757595587
328 328 c, t dbSNP:751889371
332 332 a, g dbSNP:778270228
335 335 a, g dbSNP:121908274
339 339 a, c dbSNP:758893870
340 340 c, t dbSNP:530434985
349 349 a, g dbSNP:753412890
350 350 c, t dbSNP:80356669
351 351 a, c, g, t dbSNP:28933985
353 353 g, t dbSNP:80356670
354 354 a, g dbSNP:760425445
359 359 g, t dbSNP:121918102
364 364 a, g dbSNP:750063397
372 372 a, c, g dbSNP:80356671
387 387 c, g dbSNP:121908276
391 391 a, g dbSNP:11557607
393 393 a, g dbSNP:121908277
394 394 a, g dbSNP:11557608
398 398 a, g dbSNP:11557616
408 408 a, g dbSNP:80356672
420 420 c, t dbSNP:200306755
421 421 a, g dbSNP:761517339
422 422 a, g dbSNP:11557606
427 427 c, t dbSNP:3842752
428 428 a, g dbSNP:370330362
432 432 g, t dbSNP:762974872
440 440 a, c dbSNP:3842753
441 441 a, c, g dbSNP:745923821
442 442 a, c dbSNP:781277798
443 443 c, t dbSNP:369040062
445 445 c, t dbSNP:199866212
446 446 a, g dbSNP:778107057
448 448 a, c, t dbSNP:753183182
449 449 a, g dbSNP:779345894
454 454 c, t dbSNP:755609237
458 458 a, c, g dbSNP:767089366
460 460 c, t dbSNP:376867722
461 461 a, g dbSNP:192030414
462 462 a, g dbSNP:763947624
463 463 c, g dbSNP:763029961
471 471 a, g dbSNP:41313495
477 477 g, t dbSNP:11557615
477 477 a, g dbSNP:397515519
489 489 a, g dbSNP:769707738

Target ORF information:

RefSeq Version NM_001185097
Organism Homo sapiens (human)
Definition Homo sapiens insulin (INS), transcript variant 2, mRNA.

Target ORF information:

Epitope DYKDDDDK
Bacterial selection AMPR
Mammalian selection NeoR
Vector pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK
NM_001185097

ORF Insert Sequence:

1
61
121
181
241
301
ATGGCCCTGT GGATGCGCCT CCTGCCCCTG CTGGCGCTGC TGGCCCTCTG GGGACCTGAC 
CCAGCCGCAG CCTTTGTGAA CCAACACCTG TGCGGCTCAC ACCTGGTGGA AGCTCTCTAC
CTAGTGTGCG GGGAACGAGG CTTCTTCTAC ACACCCAAGA CCCGCCGGGA GGCAGAGGAC
CTGCAGGTGG GGCAGGTGGA GCTGGGCGGG GGCCCTGGTG CAGGCAGCCT GCAGCCCTTG
GCCCTGGAGG GGTCCCTGCA GAAGCGTGGC ATTGTGGAAC AATGCTGTAC CAGCATCTGC
TCCCTCTACC AGCTGGAGAA CTACTGCAAC TAG

The stop codons will be deleted if pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK vector is selected.

CloneID OHu22288
Clone ID Related Accession (Same CDS sequence) NM_000207 , NM_001185097 , NM_001185098 , NM_001291897
Accession Version NM_001185098.1 Documents for ORF clone product in dufault vector
Sequence Information ORF Nucleotide Sequence (Length: 333bp)
Protein sequence
SNP
Vector pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector User Manual
Clone information Clone Map MSDS
Tag on pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK C terminal DYKDDDDK tags
ORF Insert Method CloneEZ® Seamless cloning technology
Structure linear
Update Date 15-MAR-2015
Organism Homo sapiens (human)
Product insulin preproprotein
Comment REVIEWED REFSEQ: This record has been curated by NCBI staff. The reference sequence was derived from BP322143.1, AC132217.15 and BM510347.1. Summary: After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]. Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. All variants encode the same protein. Sequence Note: This RefSeq record was created from transcript and genomic sequence data to make the sequence consistent with the reference genome assembly. The genomic coordinates used for the transcript record were based on transcript alignments. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##RefSeq-Attributes-START## regulatory uORF :: PMID: 20628762 ##RefSeq-Attributes-END## ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: BP322143.1, BU070847.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: single sample supports all introns SAMEA2146236, SAMEA2147596 [ECO:0000348] ##Evidence-Data-END## COMPLETENESS: complete on the 3' end.

1
61
121
181
241
301
ATGGCCCTGT GGATGCGCCT CCTGCCCCTG CTGGCGCTGC TGGCCCTCTG GGGACCTGAC 
CCAGCCGCAG CCTTTGTGAA CCAACACCTG TGCGGCTCAC ACCTGGTGGA AGCTCTCTAC
CTAGTGTGCG GGGAACGAGG CTTCTTCTAC ACACCCAAGA CCCGCCGGGA GGCAGAGGAC
CTGCAGGTGG GGCAGGTGGA GCTGGGCGGG GGCCCTGGTG CAGGCAGCCT GCAGCCCTTG
GCCCTGGAGG GGTCCCTGCA GAAGCGTGGC ATTGTGGAAC AATGCTGTAC CAGCATCTGC
TCCCTCTACC AGCTGGAGAA CTACTGCAAC TAG

The stop codons will be deleted if pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK vector is selected.

RefSeq NP_001172027.1
CDS239..571
Misc Feature(1)147..158(+)
Misc Feature(2)314..568(+)
Misc Feature(3)332..562(+)
Exon (1)1..425
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Exon (2)426..644
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Translation
Position Chain Variation Link
14 14 a, g dbSNP:772426967
46 46 -, ttgc dbSNP:3842740
62 62 g, t dbSNP:539346403
63 63 c, t dbSNP:568856178
80 80 a, g dbSNP:3842741
91 91 a, g dbSNP:535108540
112 112 c, g dbSNP:748161866
121 121 g, t dbSNP:141890481
128 128 a, g dbSNP:9282754
140 140 a, g dbSNP:546344485
147 147 a, g dbSNP:528198568
148 148 g, t dbSNP:9282755
178 178 a, g dbSNP:372697376
188 188 c, t dbSNP:552050179
189 189 c, t dbSNP:748938752
198 198 -, gcct dbSNP:774301523
205 205 a, c, t dbSNP:200371131
211 211 c, t dbSNP:563207167
216 216 a, t dbSNP:689
230 230 c, t dbSNP:5505
231 231 c, t dbSNP:11557611
232 232 c, t dbSNP:11557605
239 239 a, g dbSNP:757124361
241 241 a, g, t dbSNP:397515521
242 242 a, g dbSNP:535989053
244 244 c, t dbSNP:764207450
254 254 c, g, t dbSNP:121908278
255 255 a, g dbSNP:121908259
259 259 c, t dbSNP:759951127
263 263 c, t dbSNP:372122432
265 265 c, t dbSNP:11557610
273 273 c, t dbSNP:777079520
274 274 a, g dbSNP:3842744
275 275 c, t dbSNP:761260304
278 278 c, t dbSNP:774043636
286 286 c, g dbSNP:151134873
290 290 c, g dbSNP:748696269
300 300 c, t dbSNP:369743665
301 301 a, g dbSNP:11564720
303 303 c, t dbSNP:745671341
304 304 c, t dbSNP:375371953
305 305 a, g, t dbSNP:13306444
309 309 a, c, t dbSNP:80356663
310 310 a, c dbSNP:539284976
323 323 c, g dbSNP:121908272
331 331 c, t dbSNP:758540467
332 332 a, c, g dbSNP:80356664
338 338 c, g dbSNP:121918101
342 342 c, t dbSNP:121908273
351 351 c, t dbSNP:11557614
365 365 g, t dbSNP:80356666
367 367 c, t dbSNP:201392940
368 368 a, g dbSNP:765512575
370 370 a, g dbSNP:267602820
375 375 a, g dbSNP:121908260
376 376 a, g dbSNP:759819273
378 378 g, t dbSNP:80356667
379 379 c, t dbSNP:11557609
381 381 c, g, t dbSNP:80356668
385 385 c, g, t dbSNP:148685531
390 390 c, t dbSNP:556809279
391 391 a, c, g dbSNP:773789432
393 393 c, g dbSNP:145038693
395 395 a, g dbSNP:368338862
396 396 a, c dbSNP:202244834
400 400 c, t dbSNP:769540056
401 401 c, t dbSNP:121908261
403 403 c, t dbSNP:745511856
404 404 c, t dbSNP:781016664
411 411 c, t dbSNP:770737691
425 425 g, t dbSNP:746770373
426 426 c, t dbSNP:760240330
432 432 a, t dbSNP:773102009
433 433 a, g dbSNP:771743781
439 439 g, t dbSNP:41301451
440 440 a, c dbSNP:121908279
442 442 c, g dbSNP:774459022
445 445 c, t dbSNP:768647623
446 446 a, g dbSNP:749388720
450 450 g, t dbSNP:780264600
462 462 a, g dbSNP:144093133
465 465 a, g dbSNP:139264769
474 474 c, t dbSNP:781430273
480 480 c, t dbSNP:757595587
481 481 c, t dbSNP:751889371
485 485 a, g dbSNP:778270228
488 488 a, g dbSNP:121908274
492 492 a, c dbSNP:758893870
493 493 c, t dbSNP:530434985
502 502 a, g dbSNP:753412890
503 503 c, t dbSNP:80356669
504 504 a, c, g, t dbSNP:28933985
506 506 g, t dbSNP:80356670
507 507 a, g dbSNP:760425445
512 512 g, t dbSNP:121918102
517 517 a, g dbSNP:750063397
525 525 a, c, g dbSNP:80356671
540 540 c, g dbSNP:121908276
544 544 a, g dbSNP:11557607
546 546 a, g dbSNP:121908277
547 547 a, g dbSNP:11557608
551 551 a, g dbSNP:11557616
561 561 a, g dbSNP:80356672
573 573 c, t dbSNP:200306755
574 574 a, g dbSNP:761517339
575 575 a, g dbSNP:11557606
580 580 c, t dbSNP:3842752
581 581 a, g dbSNP:370330362
585 585 g, t dbSNP:762974872
593 593 a, c dbSNP:3842753
594 594 a, c, g dbSNP:745923821
595 595 a, c dbSNP:781277798
596 596 c, t dbSNP:369040062
598 598 c, t dbSNP:199866212
599 599 a, g dbSNP:778107057
601 601 a, c, t dbSNP:753183182
602 602 a, g dbSNP:779345894
607 607 c, t dbSNP:755609237
611 611 a, c, g dbSNP:767089366
613 613 c, t dbSNP:376867722
614 614 a, g dbSNP:192030414
615 615 a, g dbSNP:763947624
616 616 c, g dbSNP:763029961
624 624 a, g dbSNP:41313495
630 630 g, t dbSNP:11557615
630 630 a, g dbSNP:397515519
642 642 a, g dbSNP:769707738

Target ORF information:

RefSeq Version NM_001185098
Organism Homo sapiens (human)
Definition Homo sapiens insulin (INS), transcript variant 3, mRNA.

Target ORF information:

Epitope DYKDDDDK
Bacterial selection AMPR
Mammalian selection NeoR
Vector pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK
NM_001185098

ORF Insert Sequence:

1
61
121
181
241
301
ATGGCCCTGT GGATGCGCCT CCTGCCCCTG CTGGCGCTGC TGGCCCTCTG GGGACCTGAC 
CCAGCCGCAG CCTTTGTGAA CCAACACCTG TGCGGCTCAC ACCTGGTGGA AGCTCTCTAC
CTAGTGTGCG GGGAACGAGG CTTCTTCTAC ACACCCAAGA CCCGCCGGGA GGCAGAGGAC
CTGCAGGTGG GGCAGGTGGA GCTGGGCGGG GGCCCTGGTG CAGGCAGCCT GCAGCCCTTG
GCCCTGGAGG GGTCCCTGCA GAAGCGTGGC ATTGTGGAAC AATGCTGTAC CAGCATCTGC
TCCCTCTACC AGCTGGAGAA CTACTGCAAC TAG

The stop codons will be deleted if pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK vector is selected.

CloneID OHu22288
Clone ID Related Accession (Same CDS sequence) NM_000207 , NM_001185097 , NM_001185098 , NM_001291897
Accession Version NM_000207.2 Documents for ORF clone product in dufault vector
Sequence Information ORF Nucleotide Sequence (Length: 333bp)
Protein sequence
SNP
Vector pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector User Manual
Clone information Clone Map MSDS
Tag on pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK C terminal DYKDDDDK tags
ORF Insert Method CloneEZ® Seamless cloning technology
Structure linear
Update Date 15-MAR-2015
Organism Homo sapiens (human)
Product insulin preproprotein
Comment REVIEWED REFSEQ: This record has been curated by NCBI staff. The reference sequence was derived from BC005255.1 and BM510748.1. This sequence is a reference standard in the RefSeqGene project. On Jun 15, 2006 this sequence version replaced gi:4557670. Summary: After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]. Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the shortest variant. All variants encode the same protein. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: BC005255.1, BM511097.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: single sample supports all introns SAMEA2153347 [ECO:0000348] ##Evidence-Data-END## COMPLETENESS: complete on the 3' end.

1
61
121
181
241
301
ATGGCCCTGT GGATGCGCCT CCTGCCCCTG CTGGCGCTGC TGGCCCTCTG GGGACCTGAC 
CCAGCCGCAG CCTTTGTGAA CCAACACCTG TGCGGCTCAC ACCTGGTGGA AGCTCTCTAC
CTAGTGTGCG GGGAACGAGG CTTCTTCTAC ACACCCAAGA CCCGCCGGGA GGCAGAGGAC
CTGCAGGTGG GGCAGGTGGA GCTGGGCGGG GGCCCTGGTG CAGGCAGCCT GCAGCCCTTG
GCCCTGGAGG GGTCCCTGCA GAAGCGTGGC ATTGTGGAAC AATGCTGTAC CAGCATCTGC
TCCCTCTACC AGCTGGAGAA CTACTGCAAC TAG

The stop codons will be deleted if pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK vector is selected.

RefSeq NP_000198.1
CDS60..392
Misc Feature(1)132..134(+)
Misc Feature(2)132..134(+)
Misc Feature(3)135..389(+)
Misc Feature(4)141..143(+)
Misc Feature(5)153..383(+)
Misc Feature(6)156..158(+)
Misc Feature(7)162..164(+)
Misc Feature(8)168..170(+)
Misc Feature(9)168..170(+)
Misc Feature(10)171..173(+)
Misc Feature(11)174..176(+)
Misc Feature(12)177..179(+)
Misc Feature(13)177..179(+)
Misc Feature(14)180..182(+)
Misc Feature(15)192..194(+)
Misc Feature(16)198..200(+)
Misc Feature(17)201..203(+)
Misc Feature(18)201..203(+)
Misc Feature(19)204..206(+)
Misc Feature(20)222..224(+)
Misc Feature(21)324..326(+)
Exon (1)1..42
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Exon (2)43..246
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Exon (3)247..465
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Translation
Position Chain Variation Link
14 14 a, g dbSNP:772426967
51 51 c, t dbSNP:5505
52 52 c, t dbSNP:11557611
53 53 c, t dbSNP:11557605
60 60 a, g dbSNP:757124361
62 62 a, g, t dbSNP:397515521
63 63 a, g dbSNP:535989053
65 65 c, t dbSNP:764207450
75 75 c, g, t dbSNP:121908278
76 76 a, g dbSNP:121908259
80 80 c, t dbSNP:759951127
84 84 c, t dbSNP:372122432
86 86 c, t dbSNP:11557610
94 94 c, t dbSNP:777079520
95 95 a, g dbSNP:3842744
96 96 c, t dbSNP:761260304
99 99 c, t dbSNP:774043636
107 107 c, g dbSNP:151134873
111 111 c, g dbSNP:748696269
121 121 c, t dbSNP:369743665
122 122 a, g dbSNP:11564720
124 124 c, t dbSNP:745671341
125 125 c, t dbSNP:375371953
126 126 a, g, t dbSNP:13306444
130 130 a, c, t dbSNP:80356663
131 131 a, c dbSNP:539284976
144 144 c, g dbSNP:121908272
152 152 c, t dbSNP:758540467
153 153 a, c, g dbSNP:80356664
159 159 c, g dbSNP:121918101
163 163 c, t dbSNP:121908273
172 172 c, t dbSNP:11557614
186 186 g, t dbSNP:80356666
188 188 c, t dbSNP:201392940
189 189 a, g dbSNP:765512575
191 191 a, g dbSNP:267602820
196 196 a, g dbSNP:121908260
197 197 a, g dbSNP:759819273
199 199 g, t dbSNP:80356667
200 200 c, t dbSNP:11557609
202 202 c, g, t dbSNP:80356668
206 206 c, g, t dbSNP:148685531
211 211 c, t dbSNP:556809279
212 212 a, c, g dbSNP:773789432
214 214 c, g dbSNP:145038693
216 216 a, g dbSNP:368338862
217 217 a, c dbSNP:202244834
221 221 c, t dbSNP:769540056
222 222 c, t dbSNP:121908261
224 224 c, t dbSNP:745511856
225 225 c, t dbSNP:781016664
232 232 c, t dbSNP:770737691
246 246 g, t dbSNP:746770373
247 247 c, t dbSNP:760240330
253 253 a, t dbSNP:773102009
254 254 a, g dbSNP:771743781
260 260 g, t dbSNP:41301451
261 261 a, c dbSNP:121908279
263 263 c, g dbSNP:774459022
266 266 c, t dbSNP:768647623
267 267 a, g dbSNP:749388720
271 271 g, t dbSNP:780264600
283 283 a, g dbSNP:144093133
286 286 a, g dbSNP:139264769
295 295 c, t dbSNP:781430273
301 301 c, t dbSNP:757595587
302 302 c, t dbSNP:751889371
306 306 a, g dbSNP:778270228
309 309 a, g dbSNP:121908274
313 313 a, c dbSNP:758893870
314 314 c, t dbSNP:530434985
323 323 a, g dbSNP:753412890
324 324 c, t dbSNP:80356669
325 325 a, c, g, t dbSNP:28933985
327 327 g, t dbSNP:80356670
328 328 a, g dbSNP:760425445
333 333 g, t dbSNP:121918102
338 338 a, g dbSNP:750063397
346 346 a, c, g dbSNP:80356671
361 361 c, g dbSNP:121908276
365 365 a, g dbSNP:11557607
367 367 a, g dbSNP:121908277
368 368 a, g dbSNP:11557608
372 372 a, g dbSNP:11557616
382 382 a, g dbSNP:80356672
394 394 c, t dbSNP:200306755
395 395 a, g dbSNP:761517339
396 396 a, g dbSNP:11557606
401 401 c, t dbSNP:3842752
402 402 a, g dbSNP:370330362
406 406 g, t dbSNP:762974872
414 414 a, c dbSNP:3842753
415 415 a, c, g dbSNP:745923821
416 416 a, c dbSNP:781277798
417 417 c, t dbSNP:369040062
419 419 c, t dbSNP:199866212
420 420 a, g dbSNP:778107057
422 422 a, c, t dbSNP:753183182
423 423 a, g dbSNP:779345894
428 428 c, t dbSNP:755609237
432 432 a, c, g dbSNP:767089366
434 434 c, t dbSNP:376867722
435 435 a, g dbSNP:192030414
436 436 a, g dbSNP:763947624
437 437 c, g dbSNP:763029961
445 445 a, g dbSNP:41313495
451 451 g, t dbSNP:11557615
451 451 a, g dbSNP:397515519
463 463 a, g dbSNP:769707738

Target ORF information:

RefSeq Version NM_000207
Organism Homo sapiens (human)
Definition Homo sapiens insulin (INS), transcript variant 1, mRNA.

Target ORF information:

Epitope DYKDDDDK
Bacterial selection AMPR
Mammalian selection NeoR
Vector pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK
NM_000207

ORF Insert Sequence:

1
61
121
181
241
301
ATGGCCCTGT GGATGCGCCT CCTGCCCCTG CTGGCGCTGC TGGCCCTCTG GGGACCTGAC 
CCAGCCGCAG CCTTTGTGAA CCAACACCTG TGCGGCTCAC ACCTGGTGGA AGCTCTCTAC
CTAGTGTGCG GGGAACGAGG CTTCTTCTAC ACACCCAAGA CCCGCCGGGA GGCAGAGGAC
CTGCAGGTGG GGCAGGTGGA GCTGGGCGGG GGCCCTGGTG CAGGCAGCCT GCAGCCCTTG
GCCCTGGAGG GGTCCCTGCA GAAGCGTGGC ATTGTGGAAC AATGCTGTAC CAGCATCTGC
TCCCTCTACC AGCTGGAGAA CTACTGCAAC TAG

The stop codons will be deleted if pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK vector is selected.

CloneID OHu22288
Clone ID Related Accession (Same CDS sequence) NM_000207 , NM_001185097 , NM_001185098 , NM_001291897
Accession Version NM_001291897.1 Documents for ORF clone product in dufault vector
Sequence Information ORF Nucleotide Sequence (Length: 333bp)
Protein sequence
SNP
Vector pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK or customized vector User Manual
Clone information Clone Map MSDS
Tag on pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK C terminal DYKDDDDK tags
ORF Insert Method CloneEZ® Seamless cloning technology
Structure linear
Update Date 13-MAY-2015
Organism Homo sapiens (human)
Product insulin preproprotein
Comment REVIEWED REFSEQ: This record has been curated by NCBI staff. The reference sequence was derived from AC132217.15 and BM510347.1. Summary: After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]. Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. All variants encode the same protein. Sequence Note: This RefSeq record was created from transcript and genomic sequence data to make the sequence consistent with the reference genome assembly. The genomic coordinates used for the transcript record were based on transcript alignments. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## CDS exon combination :: BI521182.1, BQ581792.1 [ECO:0000331] RNAseq introns :: mixed/partial sample support SAMEA2146236, SAMEA2147596 [ECO:0000350] ##Evidence-Data-END##

1
61
121
181
241
301
ATGGCCCTGT GGATGCGCCT CCTGCCCCTG CTGGCGCTGC TGGCCCTCTG GGGACCTGAC 
CCAGCCGCAG CCTTTGTGAA CCAACACCTG TGCGGCTCAC ACCTGGTGGA AGCTCTCTAC
CTAGTGTGCG GGGAACGAGG CTTCTTCTAC ACACCCAAGA CCCGCCGGGA GGCAGAGGAC
CTGCAGGTGG GGCAGGTGGA GCTGGGCGGG GGCCCTGGTG CAGGCAGCCT GCAGCCCTTG
GCCCTGGAGG GGTCCCTGCA GAAGCGTGGC ATTGTGGAAC AATGCTGTAC CAGCATCTGC
TCCCTCTACC AGCTGGAGAA CTACTGCAAC TAG

The stop codons will be deleted if pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK vector is selected.

RefSeq NP_001278826.1
CDS120..452
Misc Feature(1)195..449(+)
Misc Feature(2)213..443(+)
Exon (1)1..102
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Exon (2)103..306
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Exon (3)307..525
Gene:INS
Gene Synonym:
Translation
Position Chain Variation Link
14 14 a, g dbSNP:772426967
46 46 -, ttgc dbSNP:3842740
62 62 g, t dbSNP:539346403
63 63 c, t dbSNP:568856178
80 80 a, g dbSNP:3842741
91 91 a, g dbSNP:535108540
111 111 c, t dbSNP:5505
112 112 c, t dbSNP:11557611
113 113 c, t dbSNP:11557605
120 120 a, g dbSNP:757124361
122 122 a, g, t dbSNP:397515521
123 123 a, g dbSNP:535989053
125 125 c, t dbSNP:764207450
135 135 c, g, t dbSNP:121908278
136 136 a, g dbSNP:121908259
140 140 c, t dbSNP:759951127
144 144 c, t dbSNP:372122432
146 146 c, t dbSNP:11557610
154 154 c, t dbSNP:777079520
155 155 a, g dbSNP:3842744
156 156 c, t dbSNP:761260304
159 159 c, t dbSNP:774043636
167 167 c, g dbSNP:151134873
171 171 c, g dbSNP:748696269
181 181 c, t dbSNP:369743665
182 182 a, g dbSNP:11564720
184 184 c, t dbSNP:745671341
185 185 c, t dbSNP:375371953
186 186 a, g, t dbSNP:13306444
190 190 a, c, t dbSNP:80356663
191 191 a, c dbSNP:539284976
204 204 c, g dbSNP:121908272
212 212 c, t dbSNP:758540467
213 213 a, c, g dbSNP:80356664
219 219 c, g dbSNP:121918101
223 223 c, t dbSNP:121908273
232 232 c, t dbSNP:11557614
246 246 g, t dbSNP:80356666
248 248 c, t dbSNP:201392940
249 249 a, g dbSNP:765512575
251 251 a, g dbSNP:267602820
256 256 a, g dbSNP:121908260
257 257 a, g dbSNP:759819273
259 259 g, t dbSNP:80356667
260 260 c, t dbSNP:11557609
262 262 c, g, t dbSNP:80356668
266 266 c, g, t dbSNP:148685531
271 271 c, t dbSNP:556809279
272 272 a, c, g dbSNP:773789432
274 274 c, g dbSNP:145038693
276 276 a, g dbSNP:368338862
277 277 a, c dbSNP:202244834
281 281 c, t dbSNP:769540056
282 282 c, t dbSNP:121908261
284 284 c, t dbSNP:745511856
285 285 c, t dbSNP:781016664
292 292 c, t dbSNP:770737691
306 306 g, t dbSNP:746770373
307 307 c, t dbSNP:760240330
313 313 a, t dbSNP:773102009
314 314 a, g dbSNP:771743781
320 320 g, t dbSNP:41301451
321 321 a, c dbSNP:121908279
323 323 c, g dbSNP:774459022
326 326 c, t dbSNP:768647623
327 327 a, g dbSNP:749388720
331 331 g, t dbSNP:780264600
343 343 a, g dbSNP:144093133
346 346 a, g dbSNP:139264769
355 355 c, t dbSNP:781430273
361 361 c, t dbSNP:757595587
362 362 c, t dbSNP:751889371
366 366 a, g dbSNP:778270228
369 369 a, g dbSNP:121908274
373 373 a, c dbSNP:758893870
374 374 c, t dbSNP:530434985
383 383 a, g dbSNP:753412890
384 384 c, t dbSNP:80356669
385 385 a, c, g, t dbSNP:28933985
387 387 g, t dbSNP:80356670
388 388 a, g dbSNP:760425445
393 393 g, t dbSNP:121918102
398 398 a, g dbSNP:750063397
406 406 a, c, g dbSNP:80356671
421 421 c, g dbSNP:121908276
425 425 a, g dbSNP:11557607
427 427 a, g dbSNP:121908277
428 428 a, g dbSNP:11557608
432 432 a, g dbSNP:11557616
442 442 a, g dbSNP:80356672
454 454 c, t dbSNP:200306755
455 455 a, g dbSNP:761517339
456 456 a, g dbSNP:11557606
461 461 c, t dbSNP:3842752
462 462 a, g dbSNP:370330362
466 466 g, t dbSNP:762974872
474 474 a, c dbSNP:3842753
475 475 a, c, g dbSNP:745923821
476 476 a, c dbSNP:781277798
477 477 c, t dbSNP:369040062
479 479 c, t dbSNP:199866212
480 480 a, g dbSNP:778107057
482 482 a, c, t dbSNP:753183182
483 483 a, g dbSNP:779345894
488 488 c, t dbSNP:755609237
492 492 a, c, g dbSNP:767089366
494 494 c, t dbSNP:376867722
495 495 a, g dbSNP:192030414
496 496 a, g dbSNP:763947624
497 497 c, g dbSNP:763029961
505 505 a, g dbSNP:41313495
511 511 g, t dbSNP:11557615
511 511 a, g dbSNP:397515519
523 523 a, g dbSNP:769707738

Target ORF information:

RefSeq Version NM_001291897
Organism Homo sapiens (human)
Definition Homo sapiens insulin (INS), transcript variant 4, mRNA.

Target ORF information:

Epitope DYKDDDDK
Bacterial selection AMPR
Mammalian selection NeoR
Vector pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK
NM_001291897

ORF Insert Sequence:

1
61
121
181
241
301
ATGGCCCTGT GGATGCGCCT CCTGCCCCTG CTGGCGCTGC TGGCCCTCTG GGGACCTGAC 
CCAGCCGCAG CCTTTGTGAA CCAACACCTG TGCGGCTCAC ACCTGGTGGA AGCTCTCTAC
CTAGTGTGCG GGGAACGAGG CTTCTTCTAC ACACCCAAGA CCCGCCGGGA GGCAGAGGAC
CTGCAGGTGG GGCAGGTGGA GCTGGGCGGG GGCCCTGGTG CAGGCAGCCT GCAGCCCTTG
GCCCTGGAGG GGTCCCTGCA GAAGCGTGGC ATTGTGGAAC AATGCTGTAC CAGCATCTGC
TCCCTCTACC AGCTGGAGAA CTACTGCAAC TAG

The stop codons will be deleted if pcDNA3.1+/C-(K)DYK vector is selected.

book

Impaired incretin secretion and pancreatic dysfunction with older age and diabetes
Metab. Clin. Exp. 63 (7), 922-929 (2014)
Geloneze B, de Oliveira Mda S, Vasques AC, Novaes FS, Pareja JC and Tambascia MA.


book

Ketosis onset type 2 diabetes had better islet beta-cell function and more serious insulin resistance
J Diabetes Res 2014, 510643 (2014)
Lu H, Hu F, Zeng Y, Zou L, Luo S, Sun Y, Liu H and Sun L.


book

Impaired beta cell function in Chinese newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidemia
J Diabetes Res 2014, 493039 (2014)
Ma Y, Wang Y, Huang Q, Ren Q, Chen S, Zhang A, Zhao L, Zhen Q and Peng Y.


book

Allele-specific recognition of the 3' splice site of INS intron 1
Hum. Genet. 128 (4), 383-400 (2010)
Kralovicova J and Vorechovsky I.


book

Global haplotype diversity in the human insulin gene region
Genome Res. 13 (9), 2101-2111 (2003)
Stead JD, Hurles ME and Jeffreys AJ.


book

Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus
(in) Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Fong CT, Smith RJH and Stephens K (Eds.); GENEREVIEWS(R); (1993)
De Leon,D.D. and Stanley,C.A.


book

Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding human preproinsulin
Nature 282 (5738), 525-527 (1979)
Bell,G.I., Swain,W.F., Pictet,R., Cordell,B., Goodman,H.M. and Rutter,W.J.


book

A structurally abnormal insulin causing human diabetes
Nature 281 (5727), 122-125 (1979)
Tager,H., Given,B., Baldwin,D., Mako,M., Markese,J., Rubenstein,A., Olefsky,J., Kobayashi,M., Kolterman,O. and Poucher,R.


book

Effects of altered thyroid function on galactosyl diacylglycerol metabolism in myelinating rat brain
J. Biol. Chem. 252 (16), 5864-5870 (1977)
Flynn,T.J., Deshmukh,D.S. and Pieringer,R.A.


book

Chemistry of insulin; determination of the structure of insulin opens the way to greater understanding of life processes
Science 129 (3359), 1340-1344 (1959)
SANGER,F.


 
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