a Related Biological Terms:
The specific antigen-binding receptor on T or B lymphocytes; these receptors are transcribed and translated from rearrangements of V genes.
A specialized type of cell, bearing cell surface Class II MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules, involved in processing and presentation of antigen to inducer, or helper , T cells. Examples: macrophage, dendritic cells.
The altering of a microorganism's surface antigens through genetic rearrangement, to elude detection by the Host's immune system.
Any chemical or biological agent that harms the growth of microorganisms.
A mutant expressing some agent that antagonizes a normal gene product.
A substance used to reduce fever.
Antisense RNAs are a type of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that regulate gene expression through different mechanisms. For example, the binding of a single-stranded antisense RNA to its complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) may inhibit translation or lead to its degradation. Antisense RNA or natural regulatory RNA molecules are commonly small molecules and were first discovered in bacteria in 1967. Nevertheless, natural antisense RNAs have been identified in many organisms. Antisense RNA mechanisms and synthetic oligonucleotides are being leveraged as therapeutics for various diseases, including cancer. RNA targeting therapeutics such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) reduce protein expression by targeting mRNA for degradation, inhibiting translation, or preventing mRNA maturation. To silence mRNA through the induction of RNAi in the cytoplasm, different RNA oligonucleotides may be used, such as microRNA and short interfering RNA (siRNA).
A protein that, when bound at its normal attachment sites in DNA, lets RNA Polymerase read through normal terminator sequences (eg the N- and Q- gene products of phage lambda).
The opening to the anal canal.
The largest artery; it leaves the heart.
If you know of any terms that have been omitted from this glossary that you feel would be useful to include, please send detail to the Editorial Office at GenScript: [email protected]