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A mechanism that ensures non-selective cytoplasm degradation by autophagy

Nat Commun. 2023-09; 
Tetsuya Kotani, Yuji Sakai, Hiromi Kirisako, Chika Kakuta, Soichiro Kakuta, Yoshinori Ohsumi, Hitoshi Nakatogawa
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In autophagy, a membrane cisterna called the isolation membrane expands, bends, becomes spherical, and closes to sequester cytoplasmic constituents into the resulting double-membrane vesicle autophagosome for lysosomal/vacuolar degradation. Here, we discover a mechanism that allows the isolation membrane to expand with a large opening to ensure non-selective cytoplasm sequestration within the autophagosome. A sorting nexin complex that localizes to the opening edge of the isolation membrane plays a critical role in this process. Without the complex, the isolation membrane expands with a small opening that prevents the entry of particles larger than about 25 nm, including ribosomes and proteasomes, although au... More