What are Cytokines

Cytokines are immunoactive proteins that act as humoral regulators modulating functional activities of individual cells and tissues at nanomolar to picomolar concentrations under normal or pathological conditions. The cytokine family consists mainly of small, water-soluble proteins and glycoproteins with a molecular mass between 8 and 30 kDa. These proteins are secreted by immune cells and include interleukins, interferons and certain growth factors. GenScript offers a comprehensive catalog of recombinant cytokines with excellent lot-to-lot consistency, superior activity and significantly low endotoxin levels. Our goal is to provide scientists quick and easy access to research tools that advance innovation and discovery.

GenScript's quality system is registered to the ISO 13485:2016 standard for the design, development, manufacture and distribution of the proteins used for in-vitro diagnostic medical devices to detect infection and markers related to inflammatory diseases, tumors, cardiac disease, and reproductive disorders. With this certificate, GenScript is qualified to provide raw materials or products to customers who manufacture and sell immunodiagnostic medical devices. Our consistent and reliable proteins facilitate the development and approval process of customer's products.

Product Overview

GenScript provides hundreds of high-quality recombinant cytokines covering the following subclasses. Click the subclass of your interest and explore more.

Beta Defensin

Beta defensins are a family of genes predominantly secreted from leukocytes and epithelial tissues. β-Defensins are small proteins (15–20 residues) that function in antimicrobial defense by penetrating a microbe’s cell membrane and cause microbial death in a manner similar to that of antibiotics [1][2].

Popular Product List

Cat. No. Product Name Quantity Price Order
Z02754
BD-1, Human
$140.00
 
Z02755
BD-2, Human
$165.00
 
Z02756
BD-3, Human
$165.00
 
Z02757
BD-4, Human
-
 
Z02894
BD-2, Mouse
$165.00
 
Z02895
BD-3, Mouse
-
 
Z02946
BD-1, Rat
-
 
Z02947
BD-3, Rat
-
 
Z02948
BD-4, Rat
-
 

Reference:
1.Lee, Charles, et al. "Copy Number Variation and Human Health." Essentials of Genomic and Personalized Medicine. Academic Press, 2010. 46-59.
2.Álvarez, Ángel H., Moisés Martínez Velázquez, and Ernesto Prado Montes de Oca. "Human β-defensin 1 update: potential clinical applications of the restless warrior." The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 104 (2018): 133-137.

BMPs

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are potent growth factors belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor Beta superfamily. To date over 20 members have been identified in humans with varying functions during processes such as embryogenesis, skeletal formation, hematopoiesis and neurogenesis [1]. Recombinant BMPs, including BMP-2 and BMP-7 approved for use as drugs for clinical use [2].

Popular Product List

Cat. No. Product Name Quantity Price Order
Z02750
BMP-4, Human
$165.00
 
Z02751
BMP-7, Human
$165.00
 
Z02913
BMP-2, Human
$90.00
 

Reference:
1.Bragdon, Beth, et al. "Bone morphogenetic proteins: a critical review." Cellular signalling 23.4 (2011): 609-620.
2.Even, Jesse, Mark Eskander, and James Kang. "Bone morphogenetic protein in spine surgery: current and future uses." JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 20.9 (2012): 547-552.

Chemokines

Chemokines are small proteins best known for their role in controlling the migration of diverse cells, particularly leukocytes. Upon binding to their G-protein-coupled receptors on the leukocytes, chemokines stimulate the signaling events that cause cytoskeletal rearrangements involved in cell movement, and migration of the cells along chemokine gradients. Depending on the cell type, chemokines also induce many other types of cellular responses including those related to defense mechanisms, cell proliferation, survival, and development [1][2].

Popular Product List

Cat. No. Product Name Quantity Price Order
Z02822
MIG/CXCL9, Human
$165.00
 
Z02825
SDF-1α/CXCL12, Human
$165.00
 
Z02826
BCA-1/CXCL13, Human
$165.00
 
Z02843
Exodus-2/CCL21, Human
$165.00
 
Z02971
IP-10/CXCL10, Human
$55.00
 
Z03026
PF-4/CXCL4, Human
$70.00
 
Z03256
GCP-2/CXCL6, Human
-
 
Z03262
IL-8 (77aa)/CXCL8, Human
$45.00
 
Z03305
Fractalkine/CX3CL1, Human
$55.00
 
Z03462
DKK-1, Human
$50.00
 

Reference:
1.Wang, Xu, et al. "Chemokine oligomerization in cell signaling and migration." Progress in molecular biology and translational science 117 (2013): 531-578.
2.Vilgelm, Anna E., and Ann Richmond. "Chemokines modulate immune surveillance in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and response to immunotherapy." Frontiers in immunology 10 (2019): 333.

EPO/TPO family

The EPO/TPO family contains two members, erythropoietin (EPO) and thrombopoietin (TPO), that are structurally similar cytokines. EPO and TPO are essential for the proliferation and differentiation for erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages and might be involved in homing/migration to the bone marrow microenvironment by hematopoietic cells that express corresponding receptors [1]. Recombinant EPO has been approved for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic renal failure as well as for anemia of AZT-treated AIDS patients [2].

Popular Product List

Cat. No. Product Name Quantity Price Order
Z02975
EPO, Human
$55.00
 
Z03175
TPO, Mouse
$90.00
 
Z03434
TPO, His,  Human
$205.00
 

Reference:
1.Gotoh, A., et al. "Thrombopoietin and erythropoietin activate inside-out signaling of integrin and enhance adhesion to immobilized fibronectin in human growth-factor-dependent hematopoietic cells." Annals of hematology 75.5 (1997): 207-213.
2.Liu, Song, et al. "Efficacy of erythropoietin combined with enteral nutrition for the treatment of anemia in Crohn's disease: a prospective cohort study." Nutrition in Clinical Practice 28.1 (2013): 120-127.

Hedgehog family: IHH, DHH, SHH

The Hedgehog signaling pathway, playing a critical role in establishing the basis of the fly body plan and later stages of embryogenesis and metamorphosis, was first identified in fruit flies of the genus Drosophila [1]. There are three Hedgehog homologues, Desert Hedgehog (DHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) that are involved in vertebrate embryonic development and have been implicated in the development of some cancers[2].

Popular Product List

Cat. No. Product Name Quantity Price Order
Z03245
DHH, Mouse
-
 
Z03277
IHH, Human
$70.00
 

Reference:
1.Bürglin, Thomas R. "The Hedgehog protein family." Genome biology 9.11 (2008): 1-9.
2.Jamieson, Catriona, et al. "Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitors: A New Therapeutic Class for the Treatment of Acute Myeloid LeukemiaHedgehog Pathway Inhibitors for Acute Myeloid Leukemia." Blood Cancer Discovery 1.2 (2020): 134-145.

Interferons

Interferons (IFNs) is one of the most important subclasses of cytokines, which play an essential role in communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens [1]. Though IFNs are best known for their antiviral properties, they are also potent regulators of cell growth and have immunomodulatory activity [2][3]. And they are important regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses.

Popular Product List

Cat. No. Product Name Quantity Price Order
Z02742
IFN-λ1, Human
$165.00
 
Z02866
IFN-α 1b, Human
$65.00
 
Z02909
IFN-ω, Human
$70.00 20 μg
 
Z02915
IFN-γ, Human
$30.00
 
Z02916
IFN-γ, Mouse
$45.00
 
Z02982
IFN-γ, Rat (CHO-expressed)
$30.00
 
Z02986
IFN-γ, Human(CHO-expressed)
$30.00
 
Z03002
IFN-α 2b, Human
$35.00
 
Z03003
IFN-α 2a, Human
$30.00
 
Z03109
IFN-β, Human
$45.00
 
Z03135
IFN-γ R II, Human
$65.00
 

Reference:
1.Parkin, Jacqueline, and Bryony Cohen. "An overview of the immune system." The Lancet 357.9270 (2001): 1777-1789.
2.Grandér, Dan, Olle Sangfelt, and Sven Erickson. "How does interferon exert its cell growth inhibitory effect?." European journal of haematology 59.3 (1997): 129-135.
3.Biron, Christine A. "Interferons α and β as immune regulators—a new look." Immunity 14.6 (2001): 661-664.

Interleukins

Interleukins (IL) are a type of cytokine that are mainly expressed by white blood cells. There are more than 50 interleukins encoded by the human genome [1]. Interleukins consist of a large group of proteins that can elicit many reactions in cells and tissues by binding to high-affinity receptors on cell surfaces and they are essential for transmitting information, activating and regulating immune cells, and promoting the development and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes and hematopoietic cells [1][2].

Popular Product List

Cat. No. Product Name Quantity Price Order
Z00377
IL-15, Human
$165.00
 
Z02698
IL-1α, Human
$165.00
 
Z02704
IL-7, Human
$165.00
 
Z02715
IL-21, Human
$159.00 10 μg
 
Z02925
IL-4, Human
$70.00
 
Z03020
IL-13, Human(CHO-expressed)
$90.00
 
Z03034
IL-6, Human
$70.00
 
Z03074
IL-2, Human
$70.00
 
Z03121
IL-10, Human(CHO-expressed)
$90.00
 
Z03243
IL-22, Human
$95.00
 

Reference:
1.Dinarello, Charles A. "Interleukin-1." Reviews of infectious diseases 6.1 (1984): 51-95.
2.Brocker, Chad, et al. "Evolutionary divergence and functions of the human interleukin (IL) gene family." Human genomics 5.1 (2010): 1-26.

TNF Superfamily

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily contains 19 members that bind to 29 members of TNF Receptor superfamily [1]. It is a protein family that contains the TNF homology domain and forms trimers. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily pathways, while reregulating normal functions such as immune responses, haematopoiesis and morphogenesis, have also been implicated in tumorigenesis, transplant rejection, septic shock, viral replication, bone resorption, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, etc[2].

Popular Product List

Cat. No. Product Name Quantity Price Order
Z01001
TNF-α, Human
$55.00
 
Z02727
sCD40L, Human
$165.00
 
Z02774
TNF-α, Mouse
$165.00 20 μg
 
Z02999
TNF-α, Rat
$55.00
 
Z03133
TWEAK, Human
$65.00
 
Z03311
TNF-α, Rhesus Macaque
$65.00
 
Z03316
TNF-α, Bovine
$65.00
 
Z03338
TNF-α, Porcine
$45.00
 
Z03369
TNF-α, Rabbit
-
 
Z03375
TNF-β, Human
$65.00
 

Reference:
1.Aggarwal, Bharat B., Subash C. Gupta, and Ji Hye Kim. "Historical perspectives on tumor necrosis factor and its superfamily: 25 years later, a golden journey." Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology 119.3 (2012): 651-665.
2.Aggarwal, Bharat B. "Signalling pathways of the TNF superfamily: a double-edged sword." Nature reviews immunology 3.9 (2003): 745-756.

TNF Receptor Superfamily

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily contains the proteins that are able to bind the members from TNF family via an extracellular cysteine-rich domain [1], which plays a critical role in signaling pathways for cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Thus, they have assumed prominent roles in the generation of tissues and transient microenvironments [2]. Due to the interaction between TNF and TNF receptors, it has been reported that the some TNF receptors have been targeted for therapies against widespread human diseases such as atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, allograft rejection, and cancer.

Popular Product List

Cat. No. Product Name Quantity Price Order
Z02725
BAFF-R, Human
$165.00
 
Z02731
BCMA, Human
$165.00
 
Z02933
4-1BB R/TNFRSF9, Human
$70.00
 
Z02935
sFASR/TNFRSF6, Human
-
 
Z03095
TRAIL R-2, Human
-
 
Z03104
TNF R I, Human
$70.00
 
Z03105
NGF R, Human
$55.00
 
Z03124
TRAIL/Apo2L, Human
$45.00
 
Z03367
TRAIL, Mouse
$45.00
 
Z03438
OX40/TNFRSF4, His, Human
$250.00
 

Reference:
1.Locksley, Richard M., Nigel Killeen, and Michael J. Lenardo. "The TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology." Cell 104.4 (2001): 487-501.
2.Ward-Kavanagh, Lindsay K., et al. "The TNF receptor superfamily in co-stimulating and co-inhibitory responses." Immunity 44.5 (2016): 1005-1019.

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