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DNA Day True/False Questions

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DNA Day commemorates the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003 and the discovery of DNA's double helix in 1953.

In celebration of DNA Day, GenScript has put the following True/False Questions for everyone to test their knowledge and maybe even learn something new! $20 Amazon Gift Cards or GenScript Coupons are waiting for you. Play now to claim yours!

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Choose the Questions

There are three sets of DNA questions, and each set has ten questions. To start, choose a set of questions. If you answer all the questions in your set correctly, you will get a lucky draw to win a prize!

DNA Synthesis

DNA Synthesis

DNA Sequencing

DNA Sequencing

CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing

CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing

DNA Synthesis

  • In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
       
  • DNA synthesis refers to the process by which RNA is made from DNA.
       
  • DNA is composed of two strands of nucleotides coiled around each other. Each strand is composed of four complementary nucleotides – adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U).
       
  • If a DNA molecule is found to be composed of 40% thymine, 20% guanine would be expected.
       
  • The enzymes that break hydrogen bonds and unwind DNA are helicases.
       
  • DNA ligase seals gaps between DNA fragments (Okazaki fragments).
       
  • Okazaki fragments form on the leading strand.
       
  • The Hershey-Chase research showed that DNA was the molecule of heredity.
       
  • Non-homologous end joining is less likely to produce mutations than homologous recombination.
       
  • There are only 20 different amino acids but 64 possible codons, most amino acids are indicated by more than one codon. (Note, however, that each codon represents only one amino acid or stop codon.)
       

DNA Sequencing

  • DNA sequencing is a laboratory technique used to determine the exact sequence of bases (A, C, G, and T) in a DNA molecule.
       
  • The first full DNA genome to be sequenced was that of bacteriophage φX174 in 1977.
       
  • James Watson invented the method of DNA sequencing that was used to complete the Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project formally launched in 1990, and was completed in 2003.
       
  • DNA sequencing is also the most efficient way to indirectly sequence RNA or proteins (via their open reading frames).
       
  • Sanger sequencing is a chemical sequencing method.
       
  • Deoxynucleotides are the nucleotides that stop DNA replication and tag the new DNA with a fluorescent label.
       
  • High-Throughput Sequencing is also called Next-Generation Sequencing.
       
  • Maxam-Gilbert sequencing is a sequencing method designed for analysis of DNA sequences longer than 1000 base pairs, up to and including entire chromosomes.
       
  • The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a fast and inexpensive technique used to "amplify" or copy small segments of DNA.
       
  • Illumina sequencing works by simultaneously identifying DNA bases, as each base emits a unique fluorescent signal, and adding them to a nucleic acid chain.
       

CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing

  • Unlike early genetic engineering techniques that randomly inserts genetic material into a host genome, genome editing targets the insertions to site specific locations.
       
  • CRISPR/Cas genome editing has widespread applications in biotechnology, for example, it has been widely used in crop breeding, gene therapy and animal modeling. Preventing some cancers is not a potential use for CRISPR.
       
  • CRISPR/Cas9 was adapted from a naturally occurring genome editing system in bacteria.
       
  • Designing your gRNA sequences involves 4 steps:
    • Determining the target gene locus.
    • Finding suitable sequences for Cas9 targeting.
    • Checking the potential for off-target binding.
    • Selecting gRNAs sequences that lie within your preferred binding region.
       
  • The protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) is about 20 nucleotides downstream of the DNA sequence targeted by the guide RNA and the Cas nuclease cuts 3-4 nucleotides upstream of it.
       
  • Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) is not a method of genome editing.
       
  • CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing depends on the generation of double-strand break (DSB) and subsequent cellular DNA repair process.
       
  • The 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded jointly to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna "for the development of a method for genome editing".
       
  • CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) system are composed of Cas9 protein and either a single guide RNA (sgRNA) or a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) : trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) duplex.
       
  • Breakthroughs with CRISPR also remain within a research context for now. There is a lot of hope and expectation that the method could be used to correct the genetic errors that cause diseases such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. However, there are significant potential risks that would need to be explored and addressed before this could move beyond a research environment.
       

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Sunday, April 25, 2021: The voting channel closes
Tuesday, April 27, 2021: Winners and Honorable Mentions announced

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