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gene Related Biological Terms:

In genetics, a unit inferred from the pattern of inheritance; in molecular biology, defined narrowly as a section of DNA that is expressed as RNA or, more widely, as a coding sequence of DNA and associated regulatory sequences.

A gene that normally functions to regulate cell proliferation by suppression of the function of an oncogene; one cause of cancer is the loss or damage of anti-oncogenes. Klein, G. (1993) FASEB J. 7, 821-825

A method to determine the limits of tolerance of a protein to amino acid substitution. A cloned gene is mutated by synthesis of short segments of the gene with random base substitutions, insertion of these altered polynucleotide sequences into the gene and then transformation of cells with the mutated gene. Cells that contain a functional protein are selected and the protein (or gene) is examined to identify the successful mutation. Testing of many such short segments until the entire structural gene is examined maps the areas of tolerance and of sensitivity of the gene product to substitutions. Bowie, J.U., Reidhaar-Olsen, J.S., Lim, W.A. and Sauer, R.T. (1990) Science 247, 1306-1310 Related reading: mutagenesis

(see guide RNA (gRNA))

(= Kunkel mutagenesis (dUTP system mutagenesis))

A gene whose expression is associated with apoptosis, e.g. a Ca2+-activated endonuclease that cleaves exposed regions of chromatin to produce nucleosome-sized fragments. (see also oncogene)

Redundancy of the genetic code, in that each amino acid is specified by more than one codon.

(see coincidence painting (chromosome painting))

The localization of a specific gene to a locus on a chromosome by study of the morphology of chromosomes and by linkage studies.

Descriptive of heritable changes in gene expression due to alterations in the structure of chromatin and/or methylation of DNA; e.g. genetic imprinting. Because these changes do not affect DNA sequences, they are, potentially, reversible.Henikoff, S. and Matzke, M.A. (1997) Trends genet. 13, 293-295; Baylis, S.B. (1997) Science 277, 1948-1949; Lewin, B. (1998) Cell 93, 301-303 Learn more about genetic code table.

The condition of a cell that has been programmed during early embryogenesis, e.g. into ectoderm, endoderm or mesoderm, to a developmental fate that will be expressed many generations later.

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