DNA Related Biological Terms:
deoxyribonucleic acid; a macromolecule formed of repeating deoxyribonucleotide units linked by phosphodiester bonds between the 5'-phosphate group of one nucleotide and the 3'-hydroxy group of the next. DNA appears in Nature in both double-stranded (the Watson-Crick model) and single-stranded forms, and functions as a repository of genetic information that is encoded in its base sequence. (see also A-DNA; B-DNA; Z-DNA)
A right-handed helix; a variant of the dominant B-form of DNA in solution, in which the base pairs are tilted somewhat out of the perpendicular orientation to the axis of the helix. (see also Z-DNA)
A polymerase with a higher than usual degree of fidelity in proofreading. Reha-Kranz, L.J. (1995) Trends Biochem. Sci. 20, 136-140
A polynucleotide that has lost one or more purine bases due to the lability in acid of the glycosidic bond to purines.
A polynucleotide that has lost one or more pyrimidine bases. (see apurinic DNA)
A right-handed helix; the dominant conformational variant of DNA in solution, in which the base pairs are stacked nearly perpendicular to the axis of the helix. (see also A-DNA; Z-DNA)
A technique similar to PCR that also uses a heat-resistant polymerase and cycles of polymerization, denaturation and annealing, but which requires only one primer. The source DNA is digested with a restriction endonuclease. A universal adaptor is engineered with self-complementary sections, so that it loops back upon itself and has ends that permit ligation to both strands at each end of the restriction fragment. In the first amplification cycle a primer anneals to an internal site and the polymerase copies the primer-binding strand through the adaptor, back along the second strand and past the site that is complementary to the primer-binding site of the first strand. In subsequent cycles the primer will have two sites for initiation of polymerization. Hengen, P.N. (1995) Trends Biochem. Sci. 20, 372-373
complementary DNA; DNA that is synthesized, by reverse transcriptase, from an mRNA template, and therefore has no introns. (see also genomic DNA)
A collection of cells, usually E. coli, transformed by DNA vectors each of which contains a different cDNA insert synthesized from a collection of mRNA species. (see also genomic library)
Closed circular DNA.
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