Custom peptide synthesis publications

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The depth of our peptide synthesis capabilities are best demonstrated by our customers' publications that cite our services. Since 2004, GenScript's Custom Peptide Services have helped thousands of scientists publish their research in peer-reviewed journals like Science, Nature, Cell, and PNAS. Currently, over 1400 publications cite our peptide synthesis services. Below, read the synopses and view some of the hottest publications that have recently cited GenScript peptide synthesis services. Visit this page again soon for new publication postings.

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Vaccine Development

Vaccine Development

New Hepatitis B DNA vaccine

In this study a new Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine capable of eliciting both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses was developed in an effort to combat the 600,000 annual new cases of HBV, which are added to the 370 million people already suffering from chronic infection. HBV infects human liver cells, leading to cirrhosis of the liver and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma.

DNA vaccine cocktail expressing genotype A and C HBV surface and consensus core antigens generates robust cytotoxic and antibody responses in mice and Rhesus macaques.
Obeng-Adjei, N et al. (2013) Cancer Gene Therapy. 20: 652–662.

α-synuclein vaccine engineered for high-titer antibody production & reduction of autoreactive helper T cell response

Normally, found in healthy brains, accumulation of misfolded alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein) is a hallmark of Parkinson's Disease and also found in Alzheimer's Disease. The presynaptic protein deposits on neurons in the brain in aggregates called Lewy Bodies causing motor degeneration and dementia.

Immunogenicity of epitope vaccines targeting different B cell antigenic determinants of human α-Synuclein: Feasibility study.
Ghochikyan A. et al. (2014) Neuroscience Letters 560: 86-91.

Optimizing helper T cell response by antigen localization

Can targeting cellular localization of helper epitope antigens increase their immunogenicity?

CD4+ helper T cells are required for the expansion of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and are helpful in inducing immunity against tumor antigens expressed at low levels or recognized as "self". Incorporating pathogenic antigen sequences (like p30 of tetanus toxin), called helper epitopes, into DNA vaccines have been shown to enhance helper T cell responses against self characterized and low expression antigens. Targeted cellular localization of helper epitopes have been shown to affect their processing and presentation, resulting in changes in overall vaccine immunogenicity.

The effect of helper epitopes and cellular localization of an antigen on the outcome of gene gun DNA immunization.
Smahel M et al. (2014) Gene Therapy doi:10.1038/gt.2013.81.


"Tired" T cells in acute viral infection

Late nights in the lab can exhaust any scientist, but did you know that T cells get tired too?

It's true, memory T cells "tire" during a phenomenon called T cell exhaustion, in which they cease production of immune response stimulatory molecules called cytokines, and express surface receptors that inhibit their own stimulation by antigen contact. Exhaustion lasts anywhere from 24 to 72 hours and occurs just prior to memory T cell division. Understanding the mechanisms of T cell exhaustion is important for developing immunotherapy strategies to fight or protect against cancers and disease.

CD8+ Memory T Cells Appear Exhausted within Hours of Acute Virus Infection.
Hosking MP et al. (2013) J Immunol. 191: 4211-4222.


Bioactive milk-derived peptides target key diabetes/obesity enzyme

In this study, dipeptides that could be released by enzymatic digestion of milk proteins were found to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), an enzyme involved in glucose metabolism. DPP-IV is a key target of incretin-based diabetes and anti-obesity therapies. Inhibition of DPP-IV results in an increase in the levels of incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Increases in GLP-1 and GIP lead to suppression of appetite and increased survival of β cell (cells that secrete insulin), resulting in the lowering of blood glucose levels. The authors of the study suggest that biofunctional hydrolysates could be used to release bioactive dipeptides from milk proteins in the development of novel type 2 diabetes therapeutics.

Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) by tryptophan containing dipeptides.
*Nongonierma AB and FitzGerald RJ (2013) Food and Function. 4: 1843-1849.


Translational study identifies phosphopeptides
as cancer immune system targets

This study identifies phosphopeptides presented by MHC class-I molecules on tumor cell surfaces as prime targets for therapeutic development. In the study, scientists identified 61 tumor-specific phosphopeptides from a pool of 95 phosphopeptides expressed on primary hematological tumors and normal tissue surfaces. Phosphopeptides were most heavily presented on the surfaces of aggressive and malignant tumor cells.

MHC Class I-Associated Phosphopeptides Are the Targets of Memory-like Immunity in Leukemia.
Cobbold M et al. (2013) Sci Transl Med. 5: DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3006061.


Me3 marks the spot… for mismatch repair

This study revealed that DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is regulated by methylation of histone 3. Crucial to the discovery was the use of mono-, bi-, and tri-methylated peptides representing methylation states of histone 3 in a GST-pulldown assay. The assay demonstrated that the MMR protein, hMSH6 (specifically the PWWP domain), preferentially binds to lysine 36 of tri-methylated histone 3 (H3K36me3).

The Histone Mark H3K36me3 Regulates Human DNA Mismatch Repair through Its Interaction with MutSα.
Li F et al. (2013) Cell 153: 590-600.

Plant cell signaling

New GPCRs? Single pass
transmembrane receptors function as
GPCRs in plants

This study challenges conventional GPCR theory. To date, GPCRs have been exclusively considered seven transmembrane (7TM) proteins, however, a study of Gα subunit interactions with the FEA2 receptor in maize suggests that single-pass transmembrane proteins qualify as GPCRs in plants.

Molecular basis for N-terminal acetylation by the heterodimeric NatA complex.
Liszczak G et al. (2013) Nat Struct Mol Biol. 20: 1098-1105.

siRNA delivery

Bee venom peptides deliver siRNA to silence cancer signaling pathways

This study demonstrates the delivery of siRNAs by peptides derived from a bee venom component called melittin. The peptides (synthesized by GenScript), were used to deliver siRNAs that successfully decreased the production of proteins key to the NFkB pathway, which plays a central role in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), suggesting that these peptides could be useful for siRNA-targeted drug delivery.

Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Mediated siRNA Transfection by Melittin-Derived Peptides
Hou KK et al. (2013) ACS Nano. 7: 8605-8615.

HIV TAT – oligo conjugates developed for
photochemically activated gene silencing

This study addresses two of the major obstacles in siRNA delivery: delivery efficiency and maintenance of oligo cargo activity. The authors address these these challenges by:

Cellular Delivery and Photochemical Activation of Antisense Agents through a Nucleobase Caging Strategy.
Govan JM et al. (2013) ACS Chem Biol. 8: 2272–2282.


Uncovering the Cancer Immunopeptidome

100,000 to 750,000 cell surface peptides are expressed for each HLA allele, but only 14,065 peptides are identified in the largest ligandome. Why?

The answer stems from the self-tolerance of most tumor-associated peptides, which are derived from wild-type cellular proteins. In cancer patients, these cell surface peptides are recognized by the immune system as "self", allowing cancer cell survival and proliferation. Thus, identification of these potential immunotherapy targets through conventional immunological assays is difficult.

Alloreactive cytotoxic T cells provide means to decipher the immunopeptidome and reveal a plethora of tumor-associated self-epitopes.
Kumari S, et al. (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 20: 652–662.