CRISPR stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. CRISPR sequences were originally identified in the Escherichia coli (E. coli) genome, and were found to function as part of an RNA-based adaptive immune system to target and destroy genetic parasites at the DNA level. CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) is an endonuclease that cuts foreign DNA, allowing integration into the host genome. Cleavage only occurs when there is a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) around the targeted sequence of the invading DNA, ensuring highly accurate targeting. Researchers studying CRISPR have adapted it for use as a tool for genetic modification of the target host genome. CRISPR/Cas9 has recently become a popular genome editing tool, due to its simplicity and versatility.