Cellular Senescence is an irreversible growth arrest undergone by all somatic cells in response to stresses and is characterized by a flat sprawling shape and inability to divide. The accumulation of senescent cells is believed to be related to both organismal aging and also to preventing progression of cancer.

Identification of senescent cells has been an ongoing challenge due to the lack or cellular characteristics and antibodies specific to senescent cells. Currently, telomere dysfunction, persistent double strand DNA breaks, cell cycle arrest, elevated SA-beta Gal, morphological transformation, and activation of tumor suppressor networks can be used to identify senescent cells, however imperfectly. Unfortunately, the senescence, aging, and telomere fields are hindered by a lack of availability of anti-senescence-associated antibodies for non-human species and immediate access to antibodies against new target candidates.

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Recent News and Publications

Protein in Young Blood Reverses Effects of Aging


New publications have demonstrated that blood from young mice injected into the circulatory systems of old mice reverses effects of aging. The presence of old blood in young animals was also observed to induce aging phenotypes. GDF11, which is naturally more abundant in the blood of younger mice and humans, was found to be sufficient to reverse aging effects.

Wagers et al. (May 2014) Restoring Systemic GDF11 Levels Reverses Age-Related Dysfunction in Mouse Skeletal Muscle. Science.

Raiser et al. (May 2014) 'Rejuvenation Factor' in Blood Turns Back the Clock in Old Mice. Science.

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Oxidative Damage Plays Leading Role in Age-related Macular Degeneration

Age-related Macular Degeneration

A new publication links T cells and macrophages responding to oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness. This study provides direct and indirect mechanisms for the effect of AMD-associated CEP on macrophages, and shows for the first time that antigen-specific T cells play a leading role in AMD pathogenesis.

Perez et al. (Feb 2014) T Cells and Macrophages Responding to Oxidative Damage Cooperate in Pathogenesis of a Mouse Model of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. PLoS One.

The authors used monoclonal antibody anti-CEP produced by GenScript's Custom Monoclonal Antibody Services

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Oxidative Stress: New Regulation Mechanisms Revealed

molecular structure

Recent work demonstrates that high reactive oxygen species (ROS) conditions in a cell activate NF-E2-related transcription factor 2 (Nrf2) to stimulate transcription Kruppel-like factor 9 (Klf9) which increase ROS further, and leads to cell death. Nrf2 was previously known to function as a transcriptional regulator for antioxidant gene expression, limiting ROS levels in cells, making this an unexpected oxidative stress regulation mechanism.

Nikiforov M. et al. (March 2014) Nrf2 Amplifies Oxidative Stress via Induction of Klf9. Molecular Cell.

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Senescence in Cancer Cells Induced by Chiral Selective Interactions with Telomere

chromosome and telomere

Researchers have identified a compound with chiral selectivity in cancer cells. This compound, NiP (zinc-finger-like alpha helical chiral metallo-supramolecular complex, [Ni₂L₃]4+-Penantiomer) can selectively induce telomere uncapping, trigger DNA damage responses at telomeres, degradation of the telomeric G-overhang, and delocalization of the sheltrin complex. Cellular apoptosis and senescence is induced in cancer, but not normal cells. Interestingly, NiP's enantiomer has no such effects.

Que X. et al. (2014) G-Quadruplex Binding Enantiomers Show Chiral Selective Interactions with Human Telomere. Nucleic Acids Res.

These researchers used anti-γ-H2AX produced by GenScript's Custom Monoclonal Antibody Services for this publication

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Primate Energy Expenditure and Life History: New Understanding about Human Health and Longevity

primate picture

A team of scientists have discovered that primates, including humans, only expend about half the calories predicted for mammals of similar size. Groups working with 17 types of primates in zoos and in the wild examined the effects of energy expenditure on life-span by measuring the body's production of carbon dioxide to measure the calories burned over a 10 day period.

Gordon A. D. et al. (2014). Primate energy expenditure and life history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Scientists Offer New Insight into Neuron Changes Brought About by Aging


A series of new studies offer new insights into how aging affects gene expression in single neurons. These discoveries may advance our understanding of how aging affects communication between neurons relating to cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Scripps Research Institute. Scientists offer new insight into neuron changes brought about by aging.

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Increase of C1q Protein in the CNS during Aging

brain picture

Recent work indicated that a protein called C1q, a key initiator of immune response, is concentrated at the contact points connecting nerve cells in the brain to one another. This can potentially make them vulnerable to destruction by brain-dwelling immune cells trigged by brain injury or systemic infection. The researchers screened proteins, using hundreds of antibodies to identify the potential protein which raises its expression level as much as 300 fold in aging brains concentrating at synapses. The findings identified an innovative mechanism for the cause of neurodegenerative disorders.

Barres B. et al. (2013). A Dramatic Increase of C1q Protein in the CNS during Normal Aging. The Journal of Neuroscience.

GenScript offers High-throughput Protein Variant Service which can produce up to 1,000 protein variants in 30 days.

Aging, Telomere, and Cell Survival-related Publications using GenScript Custom Antibody Production Services

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Related Products and Services

GenScript offers DNA damage and senescence-specific primary catalogue antibodies (See List)

Custom Gene Synthesis

See how these featured recent publications used gene synthesis to generate custom constructs to enhance the power of their experimental design.

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Custom Peptide Synthesis

Recent studies have revealed that senescent cells, termed senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), secrete a pool of molecules, including peptides, that are believed to participate in the arrest of cellular proliferation. GenScript offers quality custom peptide synthesis for the generation of antibodies to detect senescence -related proteins, or for SASP cellular assays.

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Recombinant proteins have taken center stage in biomedical research as well as in the discovery of novel therapeutics but their production can often be a daunting task. GenScript is an industry-recognized leader in providing the highest quality recombinant protein services to its customers. We offer a full-spectrum; entirely customizable service offering that can take your project all the way from gene to protein; by leveraging our proprietary and highly advanced protein expression platforms.

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