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In addition to use as the metric notation of pico (10-9), it is commonly used to indicate the logarithm of a reciprocal, e.g. molecular pKa=log(1/Ka). When seen as a prefix followed by a number, p indicates molecular molecular mass determined from a Laemmli gel and characterizes a protein whose identity is otherwise unknown, e.g. P53, a protein of molecular mass 53000Da. It is also used as a prefix to an alphanumeric designation of a molecular plasmid, e.g. pVA50. In molecular nucleic molecular acid molecular chemistry it denotes an orthophosphate in a 5'- or 3'-phosphomonoester molecular bond (e.g. pA or Gp), a molecular phosphodiester molecular bond (e.g. CpG), or a phosphate anhydride molecular bond (e.g. ppA). In molecular genetics it is a designation of a location in the short arm of a molecular chromosome. (see also molecular centromere)

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