A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), also known as a seven-transmembrane receptor or heptahelical receptor, is a large family of cell surface receptors involved in a wide range of physiological processes. These receptors play a crucial role in transmitting signals from the extracellular environment to the inside of the cell and are considered one of the most important classes of cell surface receptors. Here are key features and functions of G protein-coupled receptors: 1. Structure: GPCRs are named for their distinctive structure, which consists of seven transmembrane alpha-helical domains that span the cell membrane. These seven helices create a receptor with an extracellular N-terminus and an intracellular C-terminus. 2. Signal Transduction: GPCRs are involved in signal transduction, where they relay signals from outside the cell to the inside. They are activated when specific ligands, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or other signaling molecules, bind to their extracellular domain. 3. G Proteins: Upon activation, GPCRs interact with and activate intracellular proteins known as G proteins. G proteins are heterotrimeric, consisting of three subunits: alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ). The alpha subunit can bind GTP (guanosine triphosphate) and GDP (guanosine diphosphate) and is responsible for transmitting the signal further downstream. 4. Multiple Signaling Pathways: GPCRs can activate a wide range of intracellular signaling pathways. Depending on the specific GPCR and G protein involved, these pathways can include cyclic AMP (cAMP) production, calcium ion release, activation of protein kinases, and more. These pathways ultimately lead to cellular responses such as gene expression changes, enzyme activation, or ion channel regulation. 5. Diverse Functions: GPCRs are involved in a broad array of physiological processes, including sensory perception (e.g., vision, taste, and smell), neurotransmission, immune responses, hormonal regulation (e.g., adrenaline and insulin signaling), and many other cellular and physiological functions. 6. Drug Targets: Due to their central role in cellular signaling and their involvement in numerous diseases, GPCRs are common targets for pharmaceutical drugs. Many medications, ranging from antihistamines to antipsychotics, work by modulating the activity of GPCRs. GPCRs are one of the largest and most diverse families of receptors in the human body, with hundreds of different GPCRs identified. Their versatility and importance in cellular signaling make them a subject of extensive research in fields such as pharmacology, biochemistry, and cell biology. Understanding GPCR function and regulation is crucial for the development of novel therapeutics and treatments for various medical conditions. Related Service • GenScript offer: GPCR Stable Cell Lines, GPCR ligand binding
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This online tool shows commonly used genetic codon frequency table in expression host organisms including Escherichia coli and other common host organisms.
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