List by Alphabet: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

antibody formats

Antibody formats refer to the different structural and functional configurations of antibodies, particularly in the context of therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Antibodies are naturally Y-shaped molecules composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, but in biotechnology, they can be engineered into various formats to enhance their performance for specific uses. Here are some of the key antibody formats:

1. Full-Length Antibodies: These are the conventional form of antibodies, consisting of two heavy chains and two light chains. They have a typical Y-shape with two antigen-binding sites and are capable of triggering immune effector functions.

2. Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs): These antibodies are derived from a single B-cell clone and are homogeneous in structure and specificity. They are widely used in therapeutics and diagnostics.

3. Fragment Antigen-Binding (Fab): Fab fragments consist of one constant and one variable domain of both the heavy and light chains. They contain the antigen-binding site but lack the Fc region, which is responsible for binding to cell receptors and the complement system.

4. Single-Chain Variable Fragment (scFv): scFvs are smaller antibody fragments that consist of the variable regions of the heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains linked together by a short peptide linker. They have a single antigen-binding site and are smaller than Fab fragments.

5. Bispecific Antibodies: These antibodies have been engineered to bind to two different antigens or epitopes simultaneously. They are useful in cancer therapy, where one part of the antibody can target a tumor cell and the other can engage an immune effector cell.

6. Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs): ADCs are antibodies linked to a drug or toxin. They use the antibody's targeting ability to deliver the drug directly to specific cells, such as cancer cells, thereby minimizing systemic toxicity.

7. Nanobodies: Derived from camelid antibodies, nanobodies consist of a single variable domain and are the smallest naturally occurring antibody fragments that can bind antigens. They are notable for their stability and ease of production.

8. F(ab')2 Fragments: These are generated by pepsin digestion of full-length antibodies and consist of two Fab units linked by disulfide bonds. They have two antigen-binding sites and are devoid of the Fc region.

9. Multivalent or Multispecific Antibodies: These are engineered antibodies that possess multiple antigen-binding sites, either for the same or different antigens. This increases their binding strength and specificity.

10. Chimeric and Humanized Antibodies: Chimeric antibodies combine portions from different species, typically human and mouse, whereas humanized antibodies are mostly human, with only the antigen-binding sites coming from mouse antibodies. These modifications are designed to reduce immunogenicity when used as therapeutics in humans.

Each antibody format has its own set of advantages and applications. The choice of format depends on the desired biological activity, target specificity, pharmacokinetics, and potential clinical use. These diverse formats have significantly expanded the therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities of antibodies in medicine and research.

Related Biology Tools

  • GenSmart™ Codon Optimization

    GenSmart Optimization is a free online tool for performing codon optimization to improve gene expression. GenScript's patented algorithms are integrated into the tool to optimize the computing capability of high-performance sequence generation.

    Learn More

  • DNA Construct Design Tool

    GenSmart™ Design is a free online DNA construct design tool developed by GenScript. GenSmart™ Design has two design modules, the Create Construct module for individual plasmid design and the Create Library module for DNA library design.

    Learn More

  • Codon Frequency Tables

    This online tool shows commonly used genetic codon frequency table in expression host organisms including Escherichia coli and other common host organisms.

    Learn More

Service and Products

Antibody Production Services

Comprehensive custom antibody production services including monoclonal and polyclonal antibody production services with industry leading turnaround times.

Polyclonal Antibody Services

The fastest custom polyclonal antibody production services in the industry with unmatched guarantees.

Custom Monoclonal Antibody Development Services

Developing custom monoclonal antibodies with standard or fully custom protocols including everything from antigen synthesis to antibody scale-up options.

Phospho-Specific Antibody Services

Guaranteed ELISA titer of ≥ 1:64,000 and < 10% cross reactivity with non-phospho peptide.

Immunoassay Development Services

Our custom immunoassay development service offering comprehensive high-throughput assay development with fast turnaround and high efficiency.

Large-scale Antibody Manufacturing

Our large-scale antibody manufacturing services offer polyclonal and monoclonal antibody production of gram quantities for industrial antibody yields.

COVID-19 Reagent Antibodies

On demand SARS-CoV-2 control mAbs ideal for diagnostics, therapeutic, and vaccine development.

If you know of any terms that have been omitted from this glossary that you feel would be useful to include, please send detail to the Editorial Office at GenScript: [email protected]

If your term is adopted, we will send 1,000 EzCoupon points to your GenScript account.

Do you like the current new website?